Founding Myths

A Lesson for The Next Generation
Dave Weinman

founding myths
Founding Myths

Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past


Ray Raphael
Picture and Book Source: Founding Myths

A Summary of Tales: What We Thought We Knew

Paul Revere Molly Pitcher Final Battle of Yorktown Patriotic Slaves Final Thoughts

Hero's and Heroines:

Paul Revere's Ride:

paul revere

At times of war, people always love a hero. People are always looking for someone who will stand up, do what needs to be done, and lead by demonstration for all to see. This wasn't exactly the case with Paul Revere. Paul Revere was a skilled silversmith, and known for his "political activities in prewar Boston," (Raphael, pg 13).

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow heard a version of Paul Revere's ride from friend, George Summer and wrote a poem called Paul Revere's Ride. Ray Raphael emphasizes that events explained in Longfellow's Paul Revere's Ride were "conjured events that never happened," (Raphael, pg. 12). Longfellow was able to create a legacy that exists today. When children in schools hear about the Revolutionary War, and hear about Paul Revere's ride, they usually will be taught a distorted truth from Longfellow's rendition of the event.

Ray Raphael describes Paul Revere's one line description of his ride. "I proceeded to Lexington, thro Mistick, and alarmed Mr. Adams and Col. Hancock." That was it--Revere devoted only one short sentence to the ride that would later make him so famous," (Raphael pg. 13).

What is also surprising is that Paul Revere never gives any information referring to the famous "One, if by land, and two, if by sea," (referring to the Old North Church in Boston). Why is this line so famous? Why is it so memorable? It seems that people love a good story, no matter how truthful it is.

Paul Revere died in 1818, and his midnight ride was not significant at his time of death. Paul Revere was not a huge political man, a war hero, and he wasn't known for doing anything so spectacular during his lifetime to make a lasting impression on anyone. One might ask, so what is the big deal? Why should we teach students about this man?

According to Raphael, "Longfellow's 'Paul Revere's Ride' first appeared in the January 1861 issue of the Atlantic." This is 43 years after Revere's death. Why make Revere a hero 43 years later? The truth is that people like storys and myths sometimes better than the truth. Everyone loves a hero. Thanks to Longfellow, "nothing could thrill an audience more than an exciting chase:

A hurry of hoofs in a village street,
A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark,
And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet;
That was all! And yet, through the gloom and the light,
The fate of a nation was riding that night;
And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight,
Kindled the land into flame with its heat."

(Raphael, pg 18)

Longfellow's Paul Revere's Ride Complete Poem:


Most students when studying Paul Revere in text books don't always hear what happens to Paul Revere after he delivers his word to Adams and Hancock. Raphael explains "Revere and two others set out toward Concord to warn the people there-but he did not get very far before being captured by British officers. Revere mostly talked of this capture, of how the officers had threatened to kill him five times, three times promising to 'blow your brains out.' Though he had carried messages from town to town many times before, Revere had never encountered such serious danger. For him, this was the main event of the story,"  (Raphael, pg 14).
Why is it that we don't share this information with students in middle school first learning about Paul Revere? Is it not right to provide this information to students when talking about the "hero?"

"So through the night rode Paul Revere;
And so through the night went his cry of alarm
To every Middlesex village and farm,
A cry of defiance, and not of fear,
A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door,
And a word that shall echo for evermore!
For, borne on the night-wind of the Past,
Through all our history, to the last,
In the hour of darkness and peril and need,
The people will waken and listen to hear
The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed,
And the midnight message of Paul Revere."

(Ray Raphael pg. 12)

The truth is everyone loves a hero, and that people want to create a history that is meaningful to them. This can involve creating hero's out of an ordinary person, and making history an exciting tale that people will want to hear about years later. In many ways, legends are created the same way. Paul Revere may be a considered a legend to some, but he is not as big of a hero/icon/symbol of the Revolution as Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Hancock, Franklin, and other founding fathers were. Many still think of Paul Revere as someone special, significant, a part of history, like history the way it is, and are happy in their ignorance.

Key Points to Think About:

  • Why is Paul Revere Famous? Is it really due to Longfellow's poem?
  • When focusing on Paul Revere's life, is his midnight ride the highlight?
  • Do you think Paul Revere wanted people to remember him by his midnight ride?

If you are going to teach history to students it is better for them to learn the truth. Even though history is subjective, and truth is a point of view, It is still more important for students to learn as close to the real facts of history as possible. When you teach students about Paul Revere, and you base his life and lessons on an interpretation of Longfellow's poem as your source of information, your students will not be learning authentic history. When children learn history based on myth, and stories based on events, then end up having to relearn the truth of it later in life. It is our goal as teachers to provide students with accurate information that will increase their knowledge of the past before their time.

Depending on the age group that you are teaching Paul Revere to, it is best to teach them truth (factual information) even if it is limited, instead of stories as history. For elementary grades, it is fine to omit the part of Paul Revere's story of how he was captured by the British Soldiers and tortured. If your decide to omit it, at least give some reference to the hard times it was for people to travel and live with the British surrounding. Explain to students that the British troops were spread out throughout the land, they believed that the land should be theirs, and that any resistance should be eliminated. This included Paul Revere, a messenger sided with the resistance. Explain to students that Paul Revere did not ride alone, there was William Dawes and Samuel Prescott with him, according to Raphael (pg. 25). Raphael explains that when there are three riders instead of one, "the romance is gone."

Is it worth teaching students about a man when the hero and romance of him is diminished by the truth of the historical accounts of what actually happened? This is for you to decide when you teach your students about Paul Revere.

Potential Classroom Activities:

  • Have students research Paul Revere, and create their own interpretation of what actually happened using a dance, skit, poster, or a visual of their choice.
  • Have students create a chronological sequence of events representing what provoked Paul Revere to ride and inform Col. Hancock and Mr. Adams.
  • Have students research Paul Revere, and create a poem that represents their research, and perception of Paul Revere.
  • Have students create a visual representation of their research of Paul Revere in the form of a picture, painting, model, video, and explain their visual interpretation based on their research.
Learning Objectives:
  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of Paul Revere's Ride by researching Paul Revere, and creating a visual representation of his life.
  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of Paul Revere by creating a poem representing a significant part of Paul Revere's life.

Having students create a project based on their research of Paul Revere's life in the American Revolution relates to Erikson's Industry versus Inferiority development, and Gardener's  theory of multiple intelligence. Within Erikson's Industry versus inferiority development stage, students' enjoy the connection with working hard and the pleasure of having a job and completing it. Within this context comes the opportunity to work with peers and communicate with each other during the process of completing a project, (Woolfolk pg. 67). In reference to Gardner theory of multiple intelligences, "intelligence is the ability to solve problems and create products or outcomes that are valued by a culture," (Woolfolk pg. 109). This relates to the students ability to research Paul Revere; an icon of the American Revolution, and create a visual that demonstrates the students understanding of the man's history and significance during an event within American culture. A students ability to understand this particular man's significance in American history relates to Gardner's naturalist intelligence "(observing and understanding natural and human-made patterns and systems)," (Woolfolk pg. 109). Student will be able to develop and understanding Paul Revere's life's history through research, and identify Revere's life's role (within patterns of events) within the American Revolution time-period.

Molly Pitcher

molly pitcher

When studying the Revolutionary War, it is uncommon to immediately discover many female hero's. Molly Pitcher was a created hero, because the people wanted a heroine. People acknowledge the heroine as a real person who took up her husband's cannon at the Battle of Monmouth after he was wounded and kept firing. Molly Pitcher is a folk legend. The person doesn't exist, except on paper. Raphael explains that on July 6, 1779 at Fort Washington a Margaret Corbin went up to a cannon, "stood in for her husband John, who had just been killed," (Raphael, pg 33). The story of Molly Pitcher also explains how a woman came to provide soldiers water during battle. The soldiers knew that the woman's name was Molly, and that when they needed water they would yell, "Molly! Molly! Pitcher! Molly Pitcher."

Legends are created with stories, with some relevance to things that could of happened, but may or may not of happened during a time period for which it is based. As Raphael explains, a Molly Hays might have been present at Monmouth, but a name change through marriage may have occurred. A Mary Hays McCauly (Molly Hays marries John McCawley supposedly) could of been present at Monmouth. When Mary Hays McCauly died in 1832, "there is no record that anybody called Mary Hays 'Molly Pitcher' during her lifetime existed. Her obituaries failed to mention 'Molly Pitcher,' the name she would assume decades later," (Raphael, pg 32). In 1876, in Carlisle, there was a centennial celebration in which a Wesley Miles wrote to the local paper about Molly Pitcher and her deeds supposedly done. This is what made the created legend a part of history. The people wanted a significant headstone for her grave to remember the combined events of the created heroine legend.

"Molly McCayley
Renowned in history as
'Molly Pitcher,'
Died January 22nd, 1833
Aged Seventy-Nine Years"
(Raphael, pg 39).

Raphael explains that Washington's reaction to woman accompanying soldiers in battle, traveling, and serving is not appropriate, acceptable, and will not be honored. Washington was in the process of putting together an army, and having random followers, and excess baggage is not appropriate. "Officers commanding brigades and corps [should] use every reasonable method in their power to get rid of all such as are not absolutely necessary, " (Washington's words, (Raphael, pg 43)).

It would seem that the myths behind the story of Molly Pitcher are partially a result of the artists that would create paintings and stories of a woman preparing a cannon during battle. People are so eager to believe a legend/story that it doesn't matter if it is true, they will change it to their liking anyway. As people continue to gossip, and writers continue to write, stories can turn into myths, and the rest is history.

Key Points to Think About:

  • Molly Pitcher was a nickname for a woman.
  • The Molly Pitcher people have come to know may be based on a number of different women throughout history, not significantly because of one particular battle.
  • Stories, heroes, and legends are created because people want to spice up history so people will remember it better.
It is important when you teach students about significant people, that they learn about why these people are famous, but also about the reality of their past. With heroines like Molly Pitcher, it is important for students to realize that everything they read in textbooks, may not be accurate. At a certain age, students should come to realize that even though a lot of people believe something to be true, doesn't mean that it is. It is fairly easy for people to take many events, combine them into one, and create a name and a story with it.

Potential Classroom Activities:
  • Have students research other significant woman during the American Revolutionary War and see if there is justifiable evidence that the person did exist, and their life during the war. Students will then create an expressive art visual representing the woman's life during the war.
  • Have students take events and names from American Revolutionary War history and create their own interpretation of the event through visual representation. Students can use their expressive creativity to synthesize a representation of the event through pictures, models, dance, acting, poster, or a movie.
Learning Objectives:

  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of significant woman during the Revolutionary War by presenting their research through a visual representation.
  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their knowledge of Molly Pitcher past by creating a justifiable argument that the person did or did not exist through visuals and text.

Having students research Molly Pitcher and other woman during the American Revolution period while applying their understanding of research by creating an expressive arts project, will enable students to learn and retain the information by thinking at a higher cognitive level, (Bloom's Taxonomy, Woolfolk 435-436). Having students analyze events from American Revolutionary War history, create their own interpretation of the event, can enable the students to think critically about the event. Students will be able to process the information on a higher cognitive level, distinguish between the history's significant and non-realistic aspects. By analyzing history In this process, students will be able to identify that history is subjective, based on point of view, and can be expressed a variety of ways other than just text.

The Final Battle At Yorktown


To many who study the Revolutionary War in middle school and high school, the war ends here, at the Battle at Yorktown. On October 17, 1781, British Commander Cornwallis surrenders to Washington approximately 7000 troops (Raphael, pg 211). Many people are led to believe that after Lord Cornwallis, a British commander surrenders his sword and army to General George Washington the war is over. Students are lead to believe this because few social studies textbooks refer to the years after this battle. Raphael explains that "on October 27, 1781, only 10 days after the victory at Yorktown, Washington urged Congress to continues its 'preparation for military Operations'--a failure to pursue the war, he warned would 'expose us to the most disgracefully disasters,' (Washington to president of Congress, October 27, 1781 in John C Fitzpatrick, ed. The Writings of George Washington, from the Original Manuscript Sources, (Raphael, pg 323). Washington repeated this warning more than a dozen times. 'Yorktown was an interesting event,' he wrote, but it would only 'prolong the casualties,'" (Raphael, pg 212).

General George Washington was not ready to believe the British would just give up their hold on the thirteen colonies after one battle lost. According to Raphael, "Not until a peace treaty was signed and British troops had returned home, would he relax his guard," (Raphael, pg 213). He knew that Cornwallis did not command and surrender the entire British army in North America, as most Americans assume. In fact, Cornwallis served under General Henry Clinton, who commanded four times as many British soldiers in the former colonies as were lost at Yorktown. The Americans had recently sustained a comparable loss, the surrender of about 5,000 soldiers at Charleston. The British had surrendered a similar number at Saratoga. From a military perspective, Cornwallis's defeat at Yorktown was on par with these earlier battles,"
(Raphael pg. 214). What most people don't realize is that the British still had approximately "47,000 men, four times as many as those serving in the Continental Army (17,000 British stationed in New York, 9,000 in Canada, 10,000 in the West Indies, and 11,000 in South Carolina and Georgia)," (Raphael pg. 214).

With this reality, Washington had to keep fighting. Then why are so many people taught that the war was over at Yorktown? Raphael explains that "there are three major reasons for hushing up the historical record.

1. We want our stories to have neat beginnings and endings, and we are willing to bend the evidence to make this happen.
2. We prefer to view the war as a bipolar struggle between Americans and their foreign oppressors, without acknowledging that the brutal Civil War in the South and the fighting against Indians in the West continued unabated after Yorktown.
3. We remain blind to the global nature of the conflict. With no interest in the broader picture, we fail to comprehend why the war went on, long after we think that it did," (Raphael, pg 217).

Students who are taught about the Revolutionary War, are taught that it was American War, not a global war. In fact, the British were at War with American Colonists, the French played a big role in strategically planning and assisting an the American Colonists victory at Yorktown, there was conflict in the West Indies, northern Europe, the Mediterranean, South Africa, India, and East Indies. (Raphael, pg. 222). "Had American patriots been fighting Britain alone, Yorktown would not have had the impact it did. In fact, without the other contestants, there have been no battle at Yorktown at all," (Raphael, pg 222).

"On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered his entire army of 7750 regulars, together with 850 sailors, 244, cannon, and all his military stores. This sounds so final that few students, or even teachers, would even think of asking whether Cornwallis's 'entire army' were one and the same," (Raphael, 225).

Key Points to Think About:

  • The American Revolutionary War did not end after The Battle of Yorktown, because there were thousands of British Troops within and surrounding the American colonies.
  • George Washington was never going to call the war over until British Troops left the American colonies.
  • The Battle of Yorktown was just one battle, it was a significant win for the American colonial army, but King George III did not find it necessary to admit defeat so easily. 
  • If it had not been for the French, the previous war history between the French and the British, the conflicts within northern Europe, the Mediterranean, India, the Battle of Yorktown would most likely not be remembered as it is today in American history. It may not have even existed in the first place if these other conflicts worldwide had not been simultaneously present.
It is our responsibility as educators to teach students history that is accurate. It is our responsibility to provide students with history that is not simplified or exaggerated to the point that students receive a false impression of what really occurred. When discussing events like the American Revolution, there is a lot to tell, more than just battle's and significant people playing significant roles. There was roughly six years of war that can't be just summarized by battle's won. Although history is considered subjective, it is important that students receive a sense of what life was like during the American Revolution years. Where people living in fear? Was there a strong economy? If you weren't one of the founding fathers, politicians, or part of the military, what kind of person were you? What did you do? When studying history like the American Revolution, it is important to look beyond specific battles on specific days. Students should also learn what lead up to these major events. Students need to know that the colonists did not just wake up one day and say, "may be all revolt against the British today." The best way for students to gain this knowledge is to have them interested in doing so.

Classroom Activities:

Students can pick something about the American Revolutionary War that interests them, and create questions that they want answered. Once they have questions, students will be able to research the person, event, trying to answer their questions. After students have completed their research, have them create a visual (poster, art project, poem, skit, drawing) to represent their findings, and what they learned from the experience.


  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of the American Revolution, by explaining their research through an expressive visual representation of their findings.
  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of American Revolution period, by creating a visual concept map of their research.
  • By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding on a particular part of the American Revolution, by creating an expressive arts project that represents their interests in the war's period.


It is important for students to explore for themselves and identify their own interpretation and understanding of the American Revolutionary War. Because history is so subjective, and misleading at times, it is important for students to pace together a concrete understanding of what most likely occurred during an event in history, and how people during the time of the event reflected on its significance. It is wrong for students to base their entire understanding of an event and war on one text book's (or author) interpretation of what may have occurred during American Revolutionary War History. By having students research they own interests within the American Revolution (battles', towns, culture, people, etc.) there is potential that students motivation to learn will increase as well. A students motivation to learn is where students find "academic activities meaningful and worthwhile, and try to benefit from them," (Woolfolk, pg 374). If students are given the opportunity to explore their own interests in the American Revolution period rather than be forced into rote memorization of events and dates, then there is more potential for students to learn more from history. In relation to Bloom's Taxonomy, students are more likely to learn and retain information if they can process it at higher cognitives levels. By having students create (synthesize) a visual representation of their understanding of the American Revolution, they will be able to apply their understanding through expressive arts, and increase their ability to retain the information for longer periods of time, (Woolfolk, pg 435-436). This process is will also increase the potential for students make more personal connections with the history.

Patriotic Slaves

"During the American Revolution, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia pronounced, 'I do hereby declare all indented Servants, Negroes, or others, (appertaining to Rebels) free, that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops as soon as may be," (Raphael pg.175). Many slaves during this time were lured by this statement toward their potential freedom. Slaves may not have favored the idea of joining the British, but living a life other than as a slave was appealing to thousands of slaves from the south of the colonies. Washington did not offer slaves the same offer, in fact he owned many slaves to work at his home, and by offering this to Negroes in slavery would threaten his personal wealth. According to Raphael, "Washington banned the enlistment of all Negroes, both slave and free, until manpower shortages caused a change of mind. Only free blacks who had served previously were permitted to reenlist," (Raphael, pg 176).

If Washington had offered freedom to slaves for enlisting, there would have been the potential for thousands of slaves to immediately run from their masters for the chance of freedom. This would then cause the masters of the slaves to protest Washington and the Continental Army.

Students who first learn about the American Revolution and slavery (usually beginning in middle school) are presented with the idea that slavery during the time was harsh, cruel, and a way of life for most Negroes. Raphael spends a large portion of this section discussing slavery, tearing apart the movie "The Patriot," and how movies can cause students to have false representations of the reality of life for slaves. Behind the all the examples, is the idea that students will see examples of slavery in movies and believe these representations of what really happened to slaves as authentic.

One major discrepancy with the American Revolution and slavery is that blacks and whites came together peacefully to fight in the war is nonsense. It is true that slaves served on both sides (British and Continental forces). Raphael points imply that slaves in service were still treated poorly, provided less equipment, put on the front lines, were provided with fewer food rations, and were still treated as slaves but in service of the Continental Army, British, or Militia.

One of the most misleading things that students learn about slavery and the American Revolutionary War is that slaves that fought for the British and the American Continental Army were released or "freed." This was not really the case at all. Raphael explains that students who study slavery during the American Revolutionary War from text books will most likely find that there is no reference to the slaves being freed after service. The texts will not reference the idea that Negroes who fought in the battles and survived were destined to become slaves again, only to new masters, (Raphael, pg. 185). Those who learn to respect our founding fathers like Washington and Jefferson, and find slavery to be cruel, might be disappointed to hear that these founding fathers were in favor of slavery. While Washington was busy with war planning and battles, he had over 300 slaves working at his Mount Vernon Estate. Washington in later years especially during his presidency did begin to question the ethical issues behind slavery and the American Colonies being a land of the free. Washington finally decided in his will to free his slaves after his wife's death.

washington and slaves

It is important that students when studying the American Revolutionary War and slavery realize that slavery does not only imply blacks as slaves to masters of plantations. Slavery during this time occurred in different ways for different people. Negroes, unfortunately were forced into slavery because of the color of their skin. It is also important for students to realize that although many volunteered to be part of the British and American Continental Army, once enlisted became "slaves" to the war. Many were given minimal rations, suffered through gratuitous preparations, had little support from higher officers, gave their lives, and if survived battle after battle were forced to serve much longer than their "contracted" term (many signed contracts to enlist, which was no more than signing a name on a paper (or making a mark) that a recruiting officer set up).

Classroom Activities:

Students can create a play, or skit describing what it might have been like to be a slave during the American Revolution. They can create costumes, dialogue, set pieces, and use props to show an authentic representation in class their interpretation of slavery during the war. Students will have to base their play or skit on research that they have done to demonstrate their understanding of slavery to the rest of the class.


By the end of this unit, students will be able to apply their understanding of slavery during the American Revolution from research, by synthesizing a play that incorporates an appropriate representation of the slavery during the Revolutionary War for the class.

By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of slavery during the American Revolution from research by creating an expressive arts representation of slavery during the war.

By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of slavery during the American Revolution by evaluating learning experience of slavery through the creation of an expressive art visual.


Students will have a more successful time in assimilating their understanding of slavery with the American Revolution by synthesizing a play and a expressive arts visual describing their learned knowledge. In reference to Bloom's taxonomy, when students think at higher cognitive levels, they are more likely to have an increased understanding of the topic than if they just used rote memorization of key terms,
(Woolfolk 435-436). By synthesizing and evaluating their own understanding through the process of creating a visual aid, students are more likely to learn more from the experience and store it in long term memory as procedural, and episodic processing memory.

Final Thoughts:

History is made by those who can tell stories and the winners of wars. The better the story, the more likely the truth has been filtered away. Studying history may not be everyone's favorite thing to do. If it is required for academic purposes there are ways for it to be less painful to learn for some. Providing students with authentic experiences of the history's past, and opportunities to make it meaningful to the future is should be an educator's goal. The American Revolution's history is about the people's need for change, not the just the founding father's ambitions, or Washington's need to win. History is created (documented or scripted) by those who wish the past to be remembered by many in the most effective ways. For many, the preservation of documents (Declaration of Independence), or artifacts (swords, clothing) is a tangible way to provide an authentic representation of years in the past, and is as close as the history's truth gets. For others, history is about sharing the experiences through tall tales so people will care decades/centuries later, and return to the past with questions enabling the continuation of the history's significance.

I strongly recommend to all who enjoy learning about the American Revolution and who seek a version of the American Revolutionary war history that is less filtered to read Raphael's book Founding Myths. I have learned more about the truth behind the American Revolution and American colonial history in these 354 pages than I ever did during my primary education years. This book provides excellent resources to other studies of the American Revolution.

Founding Myths Features:

Hero's and Heroines:
1. Paul Revere's Ride
2. Molly Pitcher
3. The Man Who Made a Revolution: Sam Adams

David and Goliath:
4. The Shot Heard Round the World: Lexington and Concord
5. The Winter at Valley Forge

Wise Men
6. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence
7. Founding Fathers: The Greatest Generation

Doing Battle
8. "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death"
9. "Do Not Fire Till You See the Whites of Their Eyes"

Good Vs. Evil
10. Patriotic Slaves
11. Brutal British

Happy Endings:
12. The Final Battle at Yorktown
13. March of the American People

Conclusion: Storybook Nation, or Why We Tell Tall Tales.
Raphael, R. (2004) Founding Myths. The New Press, New York. 1-354

Molly Pitcher. Molly Pitcher. Retrieved October 29, 2006

Paul Revere's Ride. The Paul Revere House Retrieved October 29, 2006

Battle at Yorktown. Siege at Yorktown. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 29, 2006
Woolfolk, A. (2004). Educational psychology ninth edition. Pearson Education Inc. 32-436
David Weinman's Homepage: http://fg.ed.pacificu.edu/sweb/weinman/

Link to Two Books One History: A Look At The American Revolution-Reference to Howard Zinn's Book: A People's History of the United States 1492-Present, and Founding Myths

Dave Weinman's Founding Myth's Rationale and Reflection for Dr. Mark Bailey's Education 533 Method's 1 at Pacific University Forest Grove, OR (Fall 2006): Founding Myths Rational